User Managed Hot Backup Steps

HOT BACKUP STEPS:
1.           1.  #Export ORACLE_SID=sid_name
2.           2. #sqlplus “/as sysdba”
3.         3.  Sql> alter system checkpoint;
4.         4. Sql> select name, checkpoint_change#, to_char(checkpoint_time, ‘DD.MM.YYYY HH24:MI:SS’) from    v$datafile_header;(for 9i and above)
         5.  Sql> select  CHECKPOINT_CHANGE#,ARCHIVELOG_CHANGE# from v$database; (for 9i and above)
6.          6. Sql> select CURRENT_SCN,ARCHIVELOG_CHANGE# from v$database;(can not not be run in 9i)
       BACKUP AT TABLESPACE LEVEL:
7.           7. Sql> select tablespace_name,file_name from dba_data_files;
8.            8. Sql>Alter tablespace
begin backup;
9.           9. Sql>!cp source_datafile_location  destination_backup_location
10.       10. Sql> Alter tablespace
 end backup;
11.       11. Sql> ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT;
12.      12. Sql>exit;
  NOTE: Follow step 7 to 10 for each tablespace as per the need.
  OR (OTHER BACKUP STEPS FOR 10g AND ABOVE)
13.       13. Sql>alter database begin backup;
14.        Copy database files to backup location at OS level:
   14. Sql>!cp source_datafile_location  destination_backup_location
15.         15. Sql>alter database end backup;
16.         16. Sql>alter system archive log current;
   NOTE: Backup steps from 13 to 15 can only be used 10g and above versions. In 9i some upper releases step  13 to 15 might be used. 
   CONTROLFILE BACKUP:
17.         Sql> Alter system switch logfile;
18.         Sql>Alter database backup controlfile to ‘/backup/control.dbf’;
    NOTE:
1.  Copy the backup controlfile created to an external device.
            2.Copy the archived log files, starting with the required sequence number to external storage
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